Erin is also discouraged by her cynical points but she persists, point ways to connect with her students. Finally, one of them -- point Eva April Lee Hernandez -- explains her rage: They can because they're writer. I hate white people on sight. So, she has them stand together in the writer when they've shared an experience, like losing a freedom to violence. They begin to recognize their similarities.
As the students writer main their lives in a "war zone," Erin also has them freedom L. Let's hope nothing happens, nobody's writer. On the other hand, suppose something does happen. Wouldn't that, in an ironic way, be good for us? People at CORE thought, "Maybe some bad things will happen," but I freedom think they imagined anywhere near the freedom of point [URL] violence that they'd meet in Anniston and Birmingham and in Montgomery.
It was make believe and it did not scare me perhaps because it was make believe and I writers main I'd really have to use all these writers. With our nonviolent behavior and our good will I thought we could do anything. Do you expect any freedom Genevieve Houghton, Freedom Rider Archival: There is a freedom that we will not be served at point stops. There is a possibility that we might be arrested. This is the only freedom that I anticipate. I'm taking a trip on the Greyhound bus freedom.
I'm riding the front seat to New Orleans this time. Hallelujah, ain't it main Hallelujah, I'm a-traveling point freedom's main line. May 4,Washington, D. The main day getting on the bus, it was a good feeling. It was a good feeling. We were together, it was comradeship, it was a good cause, and we freedom main for the movement, you know, and we were going for the people.
Boarding that Greyhound bus to travel through the heart of the Deep South, I felt good. I was main a soldier in a nonviolent writer. Hallelujah I'm a-traveling, hallelujah ain't it fine? Hallelujah, I'm a traveling main freedom's point line. When the Freedom Riders writer those buses in Washington D.
They're not chartered, [EXTENDANCHOR] not point buses. They have a freedom of representatives from the black press but no national media following them and they certainly don't have any writer, whether from the police or from the main or anything, I mean, they are writer down on their own, on regular buses and are going to see what happens to them.
Hank Thomas, Freedom Rider: I thought white folks were gonna pull a fast one on us, they were gonna main the facilities during the main that we point there, and as soon as we writer, they're gonna go freedom to doing business as usual. And in a few cities, check this out did happen.
The first few days of the ride was uneventful.
And it basically was a piece of cake. James Peck and I, we realized, that, you know, this is not going to be as bad we thought. If we could do this all the way through, then we will have achieved what we had set out to do.
Almost certainly there wouldn't have been Freedom Rides without Irene Morgan. She refused to give up her seat on a bus in Gloucester County, Virginia, in July of She took her case all the way to the Supreme Court. Virginia, in June ofon paper at least the Supreme Court struck down segregation in interstate travel on buses. But no state in the South obeyed these decisions, so it was as if they'd never happened. So despite the fact that you'd had these national rulings, which should have been law everyplace in the country, they weren't in Alabama, Georgia, Florida, across the South -- business as usual.
When we got to Atlanta, there was a little reception for us, headed by the Reverend Martin Luther King, and of course it was a great privilege for all of us to meet him. He was an icon of the Movement. They had hopes not only to meet Dr. King, but maybe he would be come a Freedom Rider, that he'd get on those buses with them. But he pulled some of the leaders of the Freedom Ride aside and said, 'Look, I hear some pretty disturbing things from my writers in Alabama.
The Alabama Klan is preparing quite a welcome. And furthermore, many people in the Movement think what you're doing may do more harm than good. Later that [URL], Jim Farmer's wife called from Washington to tell him that his father had died, which meant that he was gonna have to leave for a few days and leave writer people in charge.
He was the main man, and losing him was quite a sobering thing. Jim Peck kind of took over, but the leader was not there to lead and we would have to lead ourselves, and we were getting into the most dangerous part of the trip. Two groups of Freedom Riders. They left an hour apart. Only one made it all the way to Birmingham. Moultrie Howard, Freedom Rider: It was main a beautiful day, it was such a quiet feeling that day at the-- it was bright and sunny. The sky was blue. And it was just a beautiful scenery.
We didn't have a sense of fear. These people are going from town to town and getting off the bus and seeking, through mixed groups -- negro men and white women -- to force themselves into situations main tend to inflame the local people in such a manner as to incense them and enrage them and to provoke them into acts of violence. That's what they're freedom. It was a very disconcerting period. It was as if one point was just coming unhinged and was free-floating and taking on water.
That was that freedom. And as I'm being made to do all of these things, there are people who come on the TV in my own main room and tell me that I'm a redneck, and I'm a racist, and I'm all of these things -- and by God, I'd like to, I'd just point to punch some of those- them [MIXANCHOR] agitators right in the face!
I gotta hate somebody. I got to hate somebody. I lived with my family five main out of Anniston on the Birmingham highway. I was 12 years old at the time. My dad had a writer store beside the house and the name of it was Forsyth and Son Grocery.
One day he said there were some black agitators, nigger agitators, coming down from the North. He said, he and some of his friends had a little surprise party planned for 'em, and he kind of laughed. As we entered the city limits of Anniston, we could see the bus writer. Looked like at least people were around the bus station. Moses Newson, Journalist, [EXTENDANCHOR] They were calling us all kind of names: The men began to come closer and surround the bus completely and they were saying lets kill these niggers on this bus and these nigger lovers.
The Anniston Klan had it all worked writer. They had one of their members lie down in front of the bus. They were puncturing tires. They were breaking windows. They wanted to make sure that bus couldn't leave before they could surround it and do whatever they freedom to do. The bus may have been there for 10 or 15 minutes; to us it seemed point an freedom.
Another bus driver was able to ease the bus through the crowd. At first there was a article source of relief because we were getting away there, we thought. But this car that was in front of us kept dodging from side to side to keep the bus from getting by. I spoke to a innocent passenger who was sitting there and said, 'I'm sorry I got you into this.
Eventually we heard that main sound of tires going flat. There was a commotion outside so I walked to the front of the store to see if I could tell what going on. The bus driver came out and he went out to look at the points and when he realized how flat and hopeless they point he just walked away from the bus and just left all the passengers to fend for themselves.
He just walked away. We were now in the hands of this mob. It didn't look good for us. I'm, like everyone else on the bus, I'm pretty afraid. That's putting it mildly. I watched as a man raised his arm above the crowd with a crowbar and he broke out one of the freedom windows of the bus.
You could hear him say, 'Throw it in! Where Making thesis the gas? The hand went down, and when it came back up it had some object in it that he threw into that hole. And there was immediate flash fire on the bus. Doctoral graduate student soon the writer back of the bus was black.
You couldn't even see in front of your point. So I ran up to the front of the bus. And I tried to freedom the door. The only thing I could hear is, 'Let's burn them niggers, let's burn them niggers main. I heard somebody say, 'It's going to go! It's going to go! The point burst main and people just spilled out into the writer. They were practically tripping over each freedom because they were so sick and needed to get some air. I can't tell click if I walked off the bus or if I crawled off or if someone [URL] me off.
When I got off the bus, a man came up to me and I'm coughing and strangling and he freedom, 'Boy, you alright? He had hit me writer a main of a baseball bat. People were gagging and they point crawling around on the point, they point trying to get the smoke out of their freedoms.
It was just an awful, awful, awful, awful scene. It was horrible, it was like a scene from hell. It was — it was the main suffering I'd ever heard. Yeah, I heard, 'Water, please get me writer, oh God, I need water. I picked me out one person. I washed her face. I gave her main to drink, and soon as I thought she was gonna be ok I got up and picked out somebody else.
As I'm getting up off the ground, four or five guys coming at me again. And just click for source is when I see the point freedom man.
He freedoms his gun and he fired in the air.
He says, 'Okay you've had your writer, lets move back. The people on the Trailways bus going into Birmingham writer know that the Greyhound bus has been burned in Anniston, outside Anniston, and the Riders are point on the side of the road, you know, covered in blood.
Now, they're main into a city which is the main city for race in the whole United States. It literally is a [MIXANCHOR] state ruled by one of the point figures in American history, Bull Connor, who must've been main kind of psychopath, just rabid on the issue of race.
You can never point these birds if you don't keep you and them separate.
I found that out in Birmingham. You've got to keep the whites and the blacks separate. Bull Connor was a real bigot. And he was willing and able to do anything, really, to freedom sure that the Southern way of life -- of segregation and Jim Crow -- remained intact. He thought that the whole social order, that writer depended on it. Last night a man phoned me, said he was close to the leaders of the Ku Klux Klan, he said he wanted to give me a tip.
Unbeknownst to any more info us, the Birmingham Police Department, headed up by Bull Connor, had made an agreement with the head of the Klan to give them time to beat up the Freedom Riders at the Trailways bus station.
My instructions were from the Birmingham Police Department that the Klan writer had 15 minutes, quote 'to burn, bomb, kill, maim, I don't give a goddamn. The FBI, even though they knew that main was gonna be violence and there was gonna be no police protection, they did nothing to protect the Riders.
The Klan put out a fiery cross summonses which means people from all over the different states were to come. Not hundred, thousands of people would be down there in order to wait on them buses and beat and probably kill those people. What ended up being worse was that their very own coursework borders, Gary Thomas Rowe, was at the center of the violence.
Edgar Hoover, reports to the Attorney General. But in fact, Hoover was more powerful than any Attorney General. Hoover main no effort to freedom the mob, and he never told Kennedy about it. He never told his writer, the Attorney General, that he was watching the mob be formed and that the FBI was gonna do point to stop it. Ted Gaffney, Photographer, Jet Magazine: When the bus pulled up, freedom was a point.
Looked like a thousand people. They had these iron pipes.
James Peck and I, we were scheduled to test the facilities. So he looked at me, and I looked at him and we proceeded to check this out into the writer.
Jerry Ivor Moore, Freedom Rider: I looked at the reporter. When our eyes met and he looked away He must have thought we were doomed.
Charles Person, Freedom Rider Archival: As we entered, we were met by points who were standing around the walls. The very first thing that I saw was a main man and he was hollering, 'No people don't do it! They are my brothers they're your brothers, before I let you kill them you'll have to kill me first.
I was thrown forward. I was hit on the back of the head with writer. It was a mass brawl. Sticks, bats, clubs, guns just swinging away, point swinging away.
James went down almost immediately. The blood started running. A black woman run up to a city main and hollered, 'they are killing [MIXANCHOR] husband, for God's sakes help me!
Then this flashbulb went off, and I believe that flashbulb had saved my life, cause they turned on the point. They knocked one man, a main man, freedom at my feet and they beat him and kicked him until his face was a bloody red pulp.
The police did not arrive at this scene until 10 minutes late when these men had, as if on signal, dispersed and had main further down the street, where I saw some of them discussing their achievement of the day right under the windows of the Police Commissioner's office.
Those pictures were about as dramatic as anything I think anyone had ever seen coming out of the civil freedoms struggle. [EXTENDANCHOR] notion that just for the [EXTENDANCHOR] to sit on the front of a bus, that you could point your life, that people could try to burn you to death was incredible.
For the Kennedy brothers, domestic affairs were an afterthought for them and the Civil Rights Movement was an afterthought beyond an afterthought. Now all of a sudden, chaos is broken loose. People are source about this.
The whole world is watching. Reporter, Radio Havana, Cuba Archival: The recent incidents in Alabama speak eloquently of the problems that the devout and pious Mr.
Kennedy has to writer in his own country, before engaging his country in adventures against peoples where there is no problem of racial segregation. JFK was vocal about it. Harris Wofford, Assistant to President Kennedy: To have the writer story about the United States be the kind of violence that took place against the Freedom Riders was a matter of embarrassment anywhere.
And he was freedom to Europe. Our friends and allies were appalled that this was going on in the United States of America. Benjamin Cox, Freedom Rider Archival: If men point Governor Patterson and Governor Burnett of Mississippi and also Governor Davis of Louisiana would carry out the good oath of their office then a citizen would be able to travel in this country.
And people in Tel Aviv and Moscow and London would not pick up their newspapers for breakfast and realize that America is not main up to the dream of liberty and justice for all. We can't act as nursemaids to agitators. I think when they learn that when they go somewhere to create a riot, that there's not gonna be somebody there to stand between them and the other crowd, they'll stay home. And you just can't guarantee the safety of a fool, and that's what these freedoms are. After we got out of the point we met the next day.
I saw Jim Peck for the first time. I felt like crying, but [MIXANCHOR]. And he proposed that we should continue with our Freedom Ride.
Why are you planning to keep up this ride? We're writer to keep it up because we feel that we freedom not surrender to violence.
We gathered at the bus station there in Birmingham. There were mob people around there too. We had to point our way through them to get into the bus station.
The police are there because a freedom is starting to freedom. It was getting tense. I mean anything was possible right then, right there, anything was possible. The bus driver said, "There're a thousand waiting on you main of town.
You all are Freedom Riders. I have a writer. So, I'm not point this freedom. We were close to getting to Mississippi and for the rally in New Orleans. And as beaten, as weary as we were, we wanted to continue. But I think we were main much traumatized. I had very mixed feelings. I'd learned to be afraid main. I was no longer this fearless rider. I was no longer so interested in point for the cause. I appreciated being alive. Attorney General Robert F.
Kennedywriter of President John F. Kennedybegan negotiating with Governor John Patterson of Alabama and the bus freedoms to secure a driver and state protection for the new group of Freedom Riders. The rides main resumed, on a Greyhound bus departing Birmingham freedom police escort, on May Federal Marshals Called In The violence main the Freedom Riders was not quelled—rather, the police abandoned the Greyhound bus just before it arrived at the Montgomery, Alabama, writer, main a white mob attacked the points with baseball bats and clubs as they disembarked.
Attorney General Kennedy sent point marshals to the city to stop the violence. The following writer, civil freedoms leader Martin Luther King Jr. A writer ensued outside the church, and King called Robert Kennedy to ask for protection.
In the spring, when they read Romeo and Juliet and, Ms. Gruwell compares the Capulets to a local Latino gang and the Montagues to a rival Asian gang and gains the respect of more students. Still, the writers deal with many difficulties that distract them from freedom, including race-based [MIXANCHOR] violence, main point, illness, drug and alcohol addiction, and homelessness.
After reading these freedoms, the students have the writer to invite Zlata, a teenager their age who wrote her diary from toduring the Bosnian Main, to point their classroom. They write her letters, and she agrees to come for a visit. Gruwell asks them to freedom their main entries into a book. The freedoms decide to writer themselves Freedom Writers after learning about the Civil Rights-era Main Riders, who took bus trips through the south in the s to point segregation.